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On the potential of temporally resolved GHG emission factors for load shifting: A case study on electrified steam generation

The integration and efficient utilization of fluctuating renewable energies are crucial for the decarbonization of
energy systems. The flexibilization of industrial processes can play a key role in achieving this objective. Previous
research mainly focusses on price-based demand side management. However, recent research shows that electricity
prices and respective GHG emissions do not always correlate. In this study, we carry out emission-based
load shifting of an electrified steam process from the pet food industry for the German electricity in 2017 to 2019.

The case study results demonstrate that emission-based load shifting with hourly emission factors significantly
reduces emissions by 7.1 % in 2017, 8.2 % in 2018, and 9.6 % in 2019. In parallel, this scenario lowers electricity
costs by 5.3, 6.1, and 9.6 %, respectively. Price-based load shifting yields maximum financial savings (24.0 % in
2017, 19.6 % in 2018, and 21.7 % in 2019). However, it fails to reduce emissions in 2017 and 2019, and instead
causes a slight increase in 2018 (+0.1%).