Flight Mechanics, Flight Control and Aeroelasticity

PM4Sim - Pilot Models for Flight Simulation

The project PM4Sim of TU Berlin is part of the german national research project "M-Fly" that is coordinated by Airbus Germany and sponsored by BMWF. The project PM4Sim aims at developing models of pilot control behavior and decision making that will be used in off-line simulations of wake vortex encounters.


For risk assessment and analysis of wake vortex encounters large numbers of different scenarios have to be evaluated. Due to the huge number of associated simulation runs, the use of pilot-in-the-loop simulator tests has to be limited to a small number of well defined cases, whereas the majority of the needed test data have to be produced in off-line simulations. For these mass simulations, the pilot behavior is reproduced using mathematical models based on the simulator test data.


The workpackage of TU Berlin addresses the need for improved simulation models for the flight in disturbed atmosphere. Based on the wake vortex encounter experience gathered by TU Berlin's Flight Mechanics group in previous research programs as well as the availability of the JAA STD 1A Level-D certified A330/340 Full-Flight-Simulator, the group is developing models of pilot behavior during wake vortex encounter. In a later phase of the project these findings will be used to derive pilot models for loads calculation of selected manoeuvres as well. As a result, validated mathematical models of pilot behavior during wake vortex encounter will be available for off-line mass simulation.

Tasks of the TU-Berlin

  • Development of appropriate structures of pilot models
  • Selection of adequate scenarios for validation of the pilot models in pilot-in-the-loop simulator tests
  • Conduct of simulator tests and data analysis
  • Adaptation of pilot models to other (non-A330/340) aircraft (if test data is available)


  • Airbus
  • TU Berlin

Previous Projects

  • S-Wake: "Assessment of Wake Vortex Safety", EU research project, 6th Framework Program
  • MODYAS: "Multi-Objective Dynamic Aircraft Synthesis", national research project, 3. Luftfahrtforschungsprogramm (LUFO 3)