Satellite Geodesy consists of the observational and computational techniques, that allow the solution of a geodetic problem by using precise measurements of artificial, mostly near-Earth, satellites (Seeber, 2002).
Further to Helmert’s definition (1880-1884), which referred to geodesy as the science of the measurement and mapping of the Earth’s surface, the objectives of satellite geodesy are mostly considered in a functional way. The main objectives in satellite geodesy are:
1. Determination of precise global, regional and local three-dimensional positions (e.g. geodetic control network, establishment of reference frame)
2. Determination of the Earth’s gravity field and linear functions of this field (e.g. determination of a precise geoid)
3. Measurement and modeling of geodynamical phenomena (e.g. polar motion, Earth rotation, crustal deformation)